10 Major Historical Battles Which Shaped The Tumultuous Viking Age
Below is a list of 10 major historical battles that unfolded in Scandinavia or overseas during the tumultuous Viking Age. The list comprises a notable series of both land and maritime clashes which shaped the history of the early medieval Scandinavian monarchies (as well as other parts of Europe at the time). These battles were also recorded in various medieval manuscripts of the time (including those pertaining to the Old Norse literature). The historical events briefly detailed below are listed in chronological order.
1. Battle of Hafrsfjord
The Battle of Hafrsfjord took place on sea near Hafrsfjord, Stavanger peninsula, present-day Rogaland county, at some point during the late 9th century. Some sources indicate a precise year for this clash which allegedly would be 872 (although this might be nothing more but a mere 19th century Romantic invention).
The significance of this battle is major with respect to western Norway, as it was the first time when this region was entirely unified under a single crown. King Harald Fairhair successfully defeated his foes from Rogaland and Sognefjord areas, thus imposing his own rule in the region. In order to commemorate the event, the Sverd i fjell (Swords in Rock) monument was erected in Stavanger.
2. Battle of Fýrisvellir
The Battle of Fýrisvellir, one of the most earliest and important battles of the Viking period, took place in circa 984 near modern day Uppsala in Sweden. At stake there was the throne of Sweden, which was contested at the time by Eric the Victorious (known as Erik Segersäll in Swedish) and Styrbjörn the Strong, the son of semi-legendary Swedish King Olof Björnsson, as well as leader of a powerful order of semi-legendary mercenary warriors known as the Jomsvikings.
In the end, the clash resulted in a key victory for King Eric, the demise of Styrbjörn, and a powerful defeat for the order of the Jomsviking mercenary warriors.
3. Battle of Hjörungavágr
The Battle of Hjörungavágr was a semi-legendary naval clash between the warships under the command of Earl Haakon Sigurdarson (the de facto leader of early medieval Norway during the late 10th century) and a consistent number of vessels pertaining to the Jomsvikings.
Although the precise location of the battle is quite debatable, it is assumed that the warships confronted on the turbulent waters off the coast of the district of Sunnmøre (South Møre), from present-day Møre og Romsdal county, western Norway, in circa 986.
It was a maritime battle of considerable proportions, given the fact that 180 ships fought for Earl Haakon Sigurdarson and 60 ones for the Jomsvikings. The outcome of the battle was a consolidation of Haakon Sigurdarson’s rule over early medieval Norway as the 10th century came to an end.
4. Battle of Svolder
The Battle of Svolder took place in circa September, 999 or 1000. It was a maritime clash that was fought between King Olaf Tryggvason of Norway and an alliance formed of the Kings of Denmark and Sweden alongside the Jarls (Earls) of Lade, one of the largest naval battles fought in Europe at that time.
On behalf of King Olaf Tryggvason fought 11 warships whilst on the side of Eric Haakonsson (Earl of Lade), Olof Skötkonung (King of Sweden), and Sweyn Forkbeard (King of Denmark) fought more than 70 vessels. This culminated in a decisive victory for the Dano-Swedish alliance supported by the Earls of Lade as well as in the death of King Olaf Tryggvason. The semi-legendary order of Jomsvikings also took part in the skirmish, supporting the Danish monarch.
King Olaf’s ship (known as ‘Ormen Lange’ in Old Norse and as ‘The Long Serpent’ in English) was the last to be captured by the alliance of Vikings from Denmark, Sweden, and the Earldom of Lade (which once spanned territories over present-day Norwegian counties of Trøndelag and Hålogaland). After the end of the battle, early medieval Norway became a possession of the Kingdom of Denmark and was ruled by the Earls of Lade.
5. Battle of Clontarf
The Battle of Clontarf represented a turning point in medieval Irish history as it was the day when the Norsemen were defeated by the Irish High King Brian Boru, as such putting an end to the Norse domination of Ireland. In Irish historiography, it is considered one of the most capital battles which ever took place on Irish soil. The clash took place on the April 23, 1014 at Clontarf, near contemporary Dublin, on the east coast of Ireland, and lasted from sunrise to sunset (according to the medieval chronicles of the time).
The forces of the High King of Ireland, Brian Boru, clashed against a Norse-Irish alliance led by the then King of Dublin, Sigtrygg Silkbeard, the King of Leinster, Máel Mórda mac Murchada, and an additional Norse regiment under the command of Sigurd of Orkney and Brodir of Mann.
6. Battle of the Helgeå
The Battle of Helgeå took place on sea in 1026 near either Uppland or Scania, southern modern day Sweden, between the Anglo-Danish Kingdom of Cnut the Great and an allied Swedo-Norwegian fleet. For Cnut the Great fought approximately 600 ships while the combined navies of Anund Jacob (King of Sweden at the time) and Olaf II (King of Norway at the time) numbered roughly 480 ships.
In spite of the fact that the Anglo-Danish warships suffered tremendous damages, the battle, one of the largest of its proportions in Scandinavia, was won by Cnut the Great. So it was that he had managed to subsequently subdue his regional foes and become a consolidated dominant force in Northern Europe.
7. Battle of Stiklestad
The Battle of Stiklestad took place on 29 July, 1030 at Stiklestad, in present-day county Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. It is still regarded as one of the most significant battles in Norwegian history. The army of King Olaf II of Norway (composed of his hirdmen and allies) faced a so-called ‘peasant’ army, consisting of peasants, noblemen who opposed Olaf II’s rule, and other soldiers allied to Cnut the Great of Denmark.
It ultimately resulted in an overwhelming victory on behalf of the ‘peasant’ army and in Olaf II’s death (presumably at the hands of Thorir Hund, a Norse chieftain who ruled over Hålogaland back then).
8. Battle of Fulford
The Battle of Fulford was fought near the village of Fulford, northern England, on 20 September, 1066. The armies of Harald Hardrada and Tostig Godwinson clashed against those of the Earls of Northumbria and Mercia, more specifically Morcar and Edwin.
The English confronted the Norsemen on open field, although they could have as well stood behind the walls of York. Nevertheless, they decided to cross the River Ouse and try to break the Viking ‘shield wall’ in the process, being unsuccessful in the end. This strategic failure of the English resulted in a decisive Norwegian victory. Fulford is therefore an early part of a series of notable battles which will eventually prove decisive in medieval English history (alongside the Battle of Stamford Bridge and the Battle of Hastings which unfolded later during the same year).
9. Battle of Stamford Bridge
The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place at the village of Stamford Bridge, near York, in late September 1066. It was fought between King Harald Godwinson of England and King Harald Hardrada of Norway (the latter being equally supported by Godwinson’s brother, Tostig).
In the end, it was a decisive English victory which also resulted in the deaths of Tostig Godwinson and of Harald Hardrada. The battle is often regarded as putting an end to the Viking Age, despite the fact that there were subsequent Norse military incursions led by King Sweyn II of Denmark or King Magnus Barefoot of Norway in late 11th century and early 12th century respectively.
10. Battle of Hastings
The Battle of Hastings doubtlessly represented one of the most important turning points in English medieval history when, with the support of an invading Norman-French army, William I (formerly Duke of Normandy) conquered England and crowned himself as king after he defeated Harold Godwinson.
William the Conqueror crossed the English Channel and clashed against Godwinson on 14 October, 1066, near the town of Hastings, located in present-day county of East Sussex, southern England. The English had already been weakened by the previous battles against the invading Norsemen stemming from northwest, which made it easier for Duke William of Normandy to have the upper hand over Godwinson’s quite war-waged and rather tired army.
It was a decisive Norman victory which paved the road for the Norman conquest of England (and, later on, resulted in the Norman conquest of Ireland via England). As such, a new language, Anglo-Norman, resulted partly from the ethnic combination of Anglo-Saxons and Normans and also from the official status of the newly introduced French as language of administration and aristocracy.
Author’s special note: This was the 100th article posted in the ‘History’ category of the website.
Documentation sources and external links:
- Battle of Svolder on www.wikipedia.org (in English)
- Battle of Svolder on www.britannica.com
- Ormen Lange (longship) on www.wikipedia.org (in English)
- Sea Battles of the Vikings on www.weaponsandwarfare.com
- The Battle of Fulford on www.britainexpress.com
- Battle of Stamford Bridge on www.wikipedia.org (in English)
- Battle of Hastings on www.britannica.com
- Battle of Clontarf on www.clontarf.ie
- Battle of Stiklestad on www.britannica.com
- Searching for Traces of the Battle of Hafrsfjord – 872 AD on www.thornews.com
- Battle of Hafrsfjord on www.britannica.com
- Battle of Fýrisvellir on www.wikipedia.org (in English)
- Battle of Hjörungavágr on www.wikipedia.org (in English)
- Battle of the Helgeå on www.wikipedia.org (in English)
- Anglo-Norman literature on www.britannica.com