The Dialect Of English Which Was Shaped By The Vikings
The Northumbrian dialect is an extinct dialect of the English language. During the early Middle Ages it was a dialect of Old English that was spoken in the former Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria (currently divided between northern England and southern Scotland). During the late part of the 8th century, the Northumbrian dialect came in contact with Old Norse concomitantly with the incursions of the Vikings.
Since the raid that took place at the Lindisfarne monastery in 793 (which was most likely conducted by Norwegian
Vikings; a historical event claimed by many scholars to have actually started the Viking Age), the Northumbrian dialect was forced to split in two additional varieties, namely southern Northumbrian and northern Northumbrian.
While the southern variety of the Northumbrian dialect got heavily influenced by the language the Norsemen brought with them when they first landed on British soil, the northern one continued to develop independently of Old Norse and retained many characteristics of the Old English.
From these two varieties that split from the initial proper Northumbrian dialect are descended the dialects of English spoken in Scotland and northern England. As a matter of fact, many words from the English dialects in the north east of England sound quite similar in form with their counterparts in Norwegian, a language also descended from Old Norse.
It is believed that the split of the Northumbrian dialect took place on the river Tees, but there are no solid evidences that can prove this. Additionally, the Scots language (comprising all of its dialects: Ulster, Central, Northern, Southern and Insular) has also been influenced by the Northumbrian Old English as well.
Documentation sources and external links: